Across Africa, those who led the fight against colonial rule and those who came after them became just as brutal as those they had deposed. As Mmusi Maimane, leader of South Africa's opposition Democratic Alliance noted last year in a speech in the Senegalese capital Dakar, the same pattern is repeated. "First comes the era of colonial rule - unjust and exploitative. Then comes independence along with a new, democratically elected government. And then follows years, even decades, of oppression by the very same people who were meant to deliver freedom." Op-ed 

What went wrong with African liberation?

  The anti-colonial movements in Africa did not liberate the people; they only liberated the state.   How the recently deceased Zimbabwean ruler, Robert Gabriel Mugabe, should be remembered is a question that has split opinion across Africa. Many have hailed him as a “liberation hero” who led the fight to end white rule in Zimbabwe, while others have insisted that his transformation into a murderous dictator had tainted whatever good he had achieved in his earlier years. It is indeed a curious debate. One would think an answer would…

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